BALI TRADITION AND RELIGION
- THE BALINESE HINDUISM -
Though Bali is multi-religious, consisting of Christian, Muslim and Buddhist minorities, the predominant religion is Hinduism.
Balinese Hinduism, called Agama Hindu Dharma, originated from Java and is a blend of Shivaism and Buddhism. The theological foundation for the religion comes from Indian philosophy while indigenous beliefs form the backbone of the rituals. This blending is perfectly acceptable in Bali as the saying goes "The truth is one; the interpretation, multiple."
In Balinese Hinduism, the indigenous beliefs manifest in the belief that nature is "power" and each element is subject to influence from spirits. Ancestor worship is also a part of the beliefs. Spirits and ancestors are treated with respect, and they are housed in a shrine and feted with offerings made from agricultural products.
As Gunung Agung is the abode of the gods and the ancestors, it is revered as the "Mother" mountain and is highly sacred to the Balinese. As water and volcanoes - considered as the wrath of the gods - come from Gunung Agung, the mountain occupies the pole of purity, kaja.
In contrast, the pole of impurity is the sea, or kelod.Balinese Hinduism revolves around this kaja-kelod axis and determines the spatial organization of rituals, architecture and daily life. One sleeps, for example, with one's head in the direction of the mountain.
Religion in Bali varies according to three principles: desa (place), kala (time) and patra (circumstances). Hinduism acknowledges five pillars of faith. They are belief in the one Supreme God (Brahaman of Sang Hyang Widdhi Wasa); belief in the soul as the universal principle of life and consciousness (atma); belief in the fruition of one's deeds (karma phala); belief in the process of birth and death (samsara); and belief in ultimate release (moksa).
One of the consequences of the principles of karma and samsara is the existence of the caste system where an individual inherits his status as a result of his or her past life. The four castes in Bali are the brahmana, who deal with religion and the holy texts; the satria or rulers; the wesia or merchants and the sudras, the lower class.
God has a variety of names. Being multiple and all pervading, he is the Ultimate Void or Sunya expanding in an infinity of murti of manifestations from which people select one as lstadewata or a personal god. Some of the names are indigenous; Sang Hyang Embang, and others of Indian Origin, Sang Hyang Parama Kawi. Ultimately however, all gods are seen as emanating from a single source.
The principle gods are Brahma, the God of Creation; Wisnu, the God of Providence; and Siwa, the God of Dissolution. These three move the world through an unending process of birth, balance and destruction. Man, a microcosm of the world, is subjected to the same process until he or she achieves moksa, blending into the Cosmos and God. The cosmos and it movement is symbolized by the swastika.
Man should endeavor to maintain the harmony of the whole system, hence the role of ritual. Only by adhering to the proper rules of behavior can the proper balance be kept between the two sets of godly and demonic forces. Balinese religion is known to the world through the richness of its rituals. Gods and demons seem to be every where and the life of the Balinese is therefore replete with rituals.
As the tools for maintaining the balance of the world there are rituals for everything imaginable, from knowledge, cleansing machines to marriage and birth ceremonies - all of different types and levels. Rituals consist of calling down the gods and the ancestors for visits from their heavenly abode in their country above the mountain. They come down during temple festivals and are entertained with dances and feted with offerings. They can also be called down through the entreaties of a priest.
Balinese rituals are ruled by a complex calendar system, a combination of the Indian Saka calendar and the Wuku calendar. The Saka year rules the agricultural cycle and is divided into lunar months and fitted into the solar calendar by the addition of an extra month, every thirtieth month. The full moon and the dark moon are the most important ritual moments of this calendar. The first day of the Saka year, however, usually in March is the day of Silence and of profound importance throughout Bali.
The Wuku year consists of a cycle of 210 days divided into thirty wuku weeks, each of which corresponds to a specific activity. There is a week of weapons and one of animals, for example. There are then other types of weeks varying from one to ten days, each having a name and number, being auspicious or inauspicious. The most important days in this system are Galungan and Kuningan, when all the ancestors come down to visit.
Temples in Bali are simple walled open yards from which people can-communicate directly with their gods and ancestors, Gods and ancestors normally "visit" their human worshipers or descendants during temple festivals (odalan). They reside in miniature houses set in the temple, the pelinggih shrines and alight with effigies of gold, coins or offerings.
During the length of their stay, the gods and their companions are symbolically bathed. feted, put to bed and entertained with dances and other shows. Meanwhile members of the temple come and go over three or more days, with offerings and to get their share of holy water sprinkled over them and the offerings during the collective prayers.
There are few societies in the world where religion plays a role such as it does in Bali. The incredible beauty and color that accompanies the rituals and offerings, which seem to be ever occurring, that Bali is continually harmonizing the world of Man with the cosmic world of the Gods.