GLOSSARY OF MUSICAL TERMS

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Angsel
Another typical gesture, the Angsel (Ahng-Sl) is a break or flourish in an otherwise continuous, and usually repeated, line. An Angsel is used to highlight a particular dance movement or musical gesture.

Beating, shimmering
inharmonic overtones ,the shimmering is faster as the notes get closer in pitch and therefore slower as the pitch gets further apart in two instruments.

Circle of Fifths
In music theory, the circle of fifths is a sequence encompassing all of the notes in the equally tempered chromatic scale. Starting on any note and repeatedly ascending by the musical interval of a perfect fifth, one will eventually land on the same note, after reaching all of the other notes: The numbers on the inside of the circle also show how many sharps or flats.

Contrapuntal
When two or more voices are heard in music, the music elaborating on a different note has a counterpoint and is said to be contrapuntal. There are many species of counterpoint.


The cent
a logarithmic measure of relative pitch or intervals. 1200 cents are equal to one octave, and an equally tempered semitone is equal to 100 centIn music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated to 8ve) is the interval between one musical note and another whose pitch is twice its frequency. For example, if one note is pitched at 400 Hz, the note an octave above it is at 800 Hz, and the note an octave below is at 200 Hz. The ratio of frequencies of two notes an octave apart is therefore 2:1.s.

Diatonic Scale
In Music theory, the diatonic major scale is a fundamental building block of the Western musical tradition. It contains seven notes to the octave, corresponding to the white keys on a piano, obtained from a chain of six successive fifths in some version of meantone temperament, and resulting in two tetrachords separated by intervals of a whole tone. If our version of meantone is the twelve tone equal temperament the pattern of intervals in semitones will be 2-2-1-2-2-2-1. The major scale begins on the first note and proceeds by steps to the first octave. In solfege, the syllables for each scale degree are "Do-Re-Mi-Fa-Sol-La-Ti-Do"


a perfect fourth
(in musical intervals), the relationship between the first note (the root or tonic) and the fourth note (subdominant) in a major scale. It is the inversion of the perfect fifth. It can be produced by starting on a high note and playing the fourth below or by starting on a low note and playing the fourth above. A perfect fourth in just intonation corresponds to a pitch ratio of 3:4 or 1:1.333...while in an equal tempered tuning, a perfect fourth is equal to five semitones, a ratio of 1:25/12 (approximately 1:1.3348), or 500 cents, about 1.955 cents wide.


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Overtone
An overtone is a sinusoidal component of a waveform, of greater frequency than its fundamental frequency. Usually the first overtone is the second harmonic, the second overtone is the third harmonic, etc. Use of the term overtone is generally confined to acoustic waves, especially in applications related to music. Despite confused usage, an overtone is either a harmonic or a partial. A harmonic is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. A partial or inharmonic overtone is a non-integer multiple of a fundamental frequency.





Peshantian

A group of people who sing Balinese traditional singing, ( kekawin )

Pewirama.
The singer in a Peshantian, she or he sings kekawin with appropriate rhymes, pitch, and intonation.

Peneges
The translator in a Peshantian, he or she is the person who gives meaning or explains the sentence that pewirama sings

Harmonics
In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. For a sine wave, it is an integral multiple of the frequency of the wave. For example, if the frequency is f, the harmonics have frequency 2f, 3f, 4f, etc. In musical terms, harmonics are component.

Inharmonic
In music, inharmonic refers to the degree to which the frequencies of the overtones of a fundamental differ from whole number multiples of the fundamental's frequency. These inharmonic overtones are often distinguished from harmonic overtones, all whole number multiples, by calling them partials, though partial may also be used to refer to both. Since the harmonics contribute to the sense of sounds as pitched or unpitched, the more inharmonic a sound the less definite it becomes in pitch. Many percussion instruments such as cymbals, tam-tams, and chimes, create complex and inharmonic sounds. Strings are less inharmonic the closer they are to their breaking points, and the amount inharmonicity is thus an important consideration for piano tuners.

Kotekan
The most prominent musical characteristic in Bali is known as Kotek (Koh-Tek), the sharing of a musical line by trading pitches between players. A musical pattern may be divided into two or more parts which interlock. This allows for very fast performance tempos. In this system, the intricate melodic figuration of the music is never played by a single musician, but is divided instead into two complementary parts (called sangsih and polos). When played together the two dovetails to form the composite figuration.Aside from the sheer sonic complexity that kotekan patterning gives the music, it also allows the orchestra to play at dazzling tempos - enough to defy even the most nimble-fingered classical pianist. Adding to the contrapuntal richness of the music is the fact that several kinds of interlocking parts may be played simultaneously in the various families of the orchestra. All of these parts relate directly to a central or core melody (pokok) around which they are woven.


KOTEKAN

One of the most striking features of Balinese gamelan music - especially the modern gong kebyar orchestra - is kotekan , the rapid interlocking figuration that permeates nearly all kebyar compositions. It creates a unique sonic impression: a group of gangsa (bronze metallophones) struck with hard wooden mallets produce an intricately patterned layer of sound above the more sustained tones of the lower instruments; the reong, a row of small tuned gongs played by four musicians, creates a different (but equally complex) figuration of a softer attack and sound color; and leading them all are a pair of drummers who play yet another kind of interlocking figuration. Perhaps the most startling aspect of this polyphony is the extreme tempo of the music, which seems to reach beyond human capabilities. The streams of notes are so wildly rapid, and in such a profusion of melodic shapes, that - coupled with the incisive metallic timbre of the instruments - it seems to many upon first hearing to be the sound of a machine, some frenetic music box set to twice its normal speed. Experiencing a live performance by a Balinese gong kebyar gamelan, one finds that the players (normally about twenty-five) are producing this mass of sound through a rhythmic synchronization of musical parts. Despite the seamlessness of the figurations, it is clear that their mallets are falling at different moments. Looking closely at an individual player, one can see that he is playing a subset of the total rhythmic matrix: sometimes every other tone, but just as often groups of two or three notes in a wide variety of patterns. Other players are fitting a different, complementary part in and around the spaces of the first, together producing the complete figuration. One might imagine, as an analogy, the text on this page being read by two narrators, one of whom pronouncing only the letters a through m, and the other n through z, yet fitting those sounds together so perfectly that we hear them as one speaker. Kotekan is almost certainly a modern technique, developed with the advent of the dynamic kebyar style around the turn of the century. The emergence of that style, with its abrupt and even explosive changes of mood, dynamics, and tempo (compared to the relatively steady and stately tempos of previous music) and highly florid patterns of melody and figuration, inspired a fundamental reorientation in the instrumentation and performance of Balinese gamelan. The instruments were expanded in range and streamlined to permit a faster playing style (during that time many of the older, massively built gong gede gamelan were melted down and reforged into kebyar style instruments) and a wealth of new playing techniques were developed, not least among them kotekan. While the orchestra musicians of Paris were struggling to perform the changing meters and strange new playing techniques of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring, the Balinese were engaged in their own musical revolution, working out the intricacies of interlocking parts.


Pengumbang
The gangsa, including permade, kantil, even the gender have twin instruments one tuned lower than the other, the lower tuned instrument is the Pengumbang.

Pengisep
The higher tuned instrument in the twin instruments in the gamelan is called Pengisep, also referred to as the male instrument.

Pengawak
The pengawak is the first movement of traditional pieces of Balinese music, usually played at a slower tempo than the following movement. This occurs mostly where the whole gamelan is playing rather than when there are separate instrumental parts.

Suling
The Balinese flute, played with circular breathing (similar to the didgeridoo players in Australia), have two types : 1 with 4 holes to play the slendro tuning and 1 with 5 holes to play the pelog tuning. However the suling is not strictly bound to these modes as they have many more notes.

Gilak
Fast tempo section of a piece of traditional Balinese music, usually following the pengawak.

Pokok
Is the main melody of a piece of gamelan music, It could be played by the jegogans calung, ugal or the sulings.

Polos
The melody or in tempo section of the Kotekan played by the gangsa in Balinese gamelan. This music elaborates the main melody pokok.

Sangsih
This elaboration section of the Kotekan , is usually contrapuntal or off the beat. The sangsih instrument is usually lower in pitch of the twin instruments, however , the sangsih part can also be played by the higher tuned pengisep instrument to increase the shimmering effect.



Slanketan
the part of kotekan in which individual players negotiate both polos and sangsih at once.

Ostinato
Balinese Gamelan music is in cycle, or in musical terms, ostinato.
Ostinato (derived from Italian: "stubborn") is a motif or phrase which is persistently repeated at the same pitch. The repeating idea may be a rhythmic pattern, part of a tune, or a complete melody.

OCTAVE
For the numerical computation software, see GNU Octave.
In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated to 8ve) is the interval between one musical note and another whose pitch is twice its frequency. For example, if one note is pitched at 400 Hz, the note an octave above it is at 800 Hz, and the note an octave below is at 200 Hz. The ratio of frequencies of two notes an octave apart is therefore 2:1.

SCALE
( In music, a scale is an ascending or descending series of notes or pitches, as opposed to a series of intervals, which is a musical mode. Each note in a scale is referred to as a scale degree. Though the scales from musical traditions around the world are often quite different, the pitches of the notes in any given scale are usually related by a mathematical rule. Scales are theoretical constructs which may be used to control a composition, but much music is written without any scale in mind. Scales may be described as tonal, modal, diatonic, derived or synthetic, and by the number of tones included.)

Slendro
is one of the two scales of gamelan , the other scale, because it is basically just five near equally spaced tones to the octave. Therefore it has narrow fourths of about 480 cents, in contrast to the wide fourths of the pelog scale.

PELOG
Pelog is one of the two essential scales of Gamelan music native to Bali and Java , in Indonesia
The other is slendro, except with very wide, out-of-tune fourths, between 515 and 535 cents The cent is a logarithmic measure of relative pitch or intervals. 1200 cents are equal to one octave, and an equally tempered semitone is equal to 100 cents.
This is at the very extreme of the range of intervals that can be perceived as a fourth, and rapid beating between the upper harmonics (actually inharmonic overtones in the case of the metallophones which form the bulk of the gamelan orchestra contributes to the unique shimmering sound of the gamelan. The full pelog scale has seven distinct tones (a stack of 6 fourths), but normally a composition would be written in a 5-tone subset of the full scale. The seven tones of the pelog scale, in circle-of-fourths order, are called "barang", "dada", "nem", "gulu", "lima", "bem", and "pelog" (yes, same as the name of the scale). Therefore, the tones of the scale in ascending order, with the two different kinds of step interval labeled L and S, are: gulu-S-dada-L-pelog-S-lima-S-nem-S-barang-L-bem-S-gulu. In this case S is about 110-150 cents and L is 250-300 cents.
The cents measurements above are just from one example of a Javanese Pelog scale. Pelog scales can and do vary widely from island to island, province to province, and even town to town (Bali is a good example of where this happens). There is disagreement among musicologists about what exactly makes a pelog scale a pelog scale. More importantly, Indonesians until quite recently never measured or analyzed their scales using the western measurements of pitch and cents. Pelog, from an Indonesian point of view is much more about the feeling of the scale. Anyone trying to understand this scale should not try to do so analytically until they understand the music and culture it comes from.

Peshantian: The group of people who sing kekawin..

Seleh: The last note of a stanza (gatra), usualy played by a gong , to signify the end of a stanza, At the end of a ostinato this played by the largest gong from where the music either repeats or goes to a new melody.

Pewirama: The singer of Kekawin verse often sung in Sanscrit or old Balinese. She or he sings with appropriate rhymes, pitch, and intonation after which the Peneges will translate the verse to the native language.

Peneges: The person in a kekawin group or duo who gives meaning or explains the sentence that pewirama sings, this is often a story from the epics and has moral values.